Issues, 1970–79

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Advisory Editor: Monroe S. Beardsley

Maurice Mandelbaum
Subjective, Objective, and
Conceptual Relativisms

A. MacC. Armstrong
Objectivity in Historical Writing

Baruch A. Brody
Intuitions and Objective Moral Knowledge

Evan Simpson
Objective Reason and Respect for Persons

Harold I. Brown
Observation and the Foundations of Objectivity

Jeffrey Olen
Perception, Inference and Aesthetic Qualities

Cheryl N. Noble
Normative Ethical Theories

Robin Attfield
How Not to Be a Moral Relativist

Advisory Editor: Mary Mothersill

Norman Daniels
Moral Theory and the Plasticity of Persons

Samuel Scheffler
Moral Scepticism and Ideals of the Person

Terence Penelhum
Human Nature and External Desires

Naomi Scheman
On Sympathy

John McDowell
Virtue and Reason

Roger S. Gottlieb
Kierkegaard’s Ethical Individualism

Donald Vandeveer
Of Beasts, Persons, and the Original Position

George Sher
Compensation and Transworld Personal Identity

Advisory Editor: Dagfinn Føllesdal

W.V. Quine
Cognitive Meaning

P.F. Strawson
Belief, Reference and Quantification

Gareth Evans
Reference and Contingency

John R. Searle
Referential and Attributive

William G. Lycan
Semantic Competence and Funny Functors

William Godfrey-Smith
Thoughts of Objects

John Biro
Intentionalism in the Theory of Meaning

Advisory Editor: Joseph Owens

Alexander P.D. Mourelatos
Some Alternatives in Interpreting Parmenides

Joseph Owens
Knowledge and Katabasis in Parmenides

Karl Bormann
The Interpretation of Parmenides
by the Neoplatonist Simplicius

Leonardo Tarán
Perpetual Duration and Atemporal Eternity
in Parmenides and Plato

T.M. Robinson
Parmenides on the Real in its Totality

David Gallop
‘Is’ or ‘Is Not’?

P.B. Manchester
Parmenides and the Need for Eternity

Dan Magurshak
Heidegger and Edwards on Sein-zum-Tode

Advisory Editor: William P. Alston

Jerry A. Fodor
Propositional Attitudes

Alvin I. Goldman
Epistemology and the Psychology of Belief

David W. Hamlyn
Perception and Agency

H. Rom Harré
Towards a Cognitive Psychology of Social Action:
Philosophical Issues of a Programme

Stephen P. Stich
Autonomous Psychology and the Belief-Desire Thesis

Robert Audi
Psychological Foundationalism

Peter Skagestad
Taking Evolution Seriously: Critical Comments
on D.T. Campbell’s Evolutionary Epistemology

Sophie Haroutunian
Piaget’s Explanation of “Stage” Transition

Advisory Editor: Richard M. Martin

Ruth Barcan Marcus
Nominalism and the Substitutional Quantifier

Rolf Eberle
Semantic Analysis Without Reference to Abstract Entities

Joseph Margolis
The Problems of Similarity: Realism and Nominalism

Richard E. Grandy
An Ockhamite Criticism of Church Semantics

James B. Scoggin
The Substitutional Quantifier: A Critique

Armand A. Maurer
Method in Ockham’s Nominalism

Marilyn McCord Adams
Ockham’s Theory of Natural Signification

Herbert Hochberg
Nominalism, General Terms, and Predication

Sidney Axinn
Kant and Goodman on Possible Individuals

Susan Haack
Platonism Versus Nominalism: Carnap and Goodman

Advisory Editor: Lewis White Beck

Peter Kivy
Thomas Reid and the Expression Theory of Art

Keith Lehrer
Reid on Primary and Secondary Qualities

Ronald Beanblossom
Russell’s Indebtedness to Reid

Timothy J. Duggan
Ayer and Reid: Responses to the Skeptic

Peter Heath
Reid on Conceiving and Imagining

J.H. Faurot
Tomas Reid, on Intelligible Objects

John Immerwahr
The Development of Reid’s Realism

Bernard R. Rollin
Thomas Reid and the Semiotics of Perception

Arthur R. Greenberg
Reid, Berkeley, and Notional Knowledge

Michael S. Pritchard
Reason and Passion: Reid’s Reply to Hume

Henning Jensen
Common Sense and Common Language in
Thomas Reid’s Ethical Theory

Louise Marcil Lacoste
The Seriousness of Reid’s Sceptical Admissions

Daniel N. Robinson & Tom L. Beauchamp
Personal Identity: Reid’s Answer to Hume

Advisory Editor: John E. Smith

Julia Ching
“Authentic Selfhood”: Wang Yang-ming and Heidegger

Peter A. Bertocci
The Essence of a Person

Glyn Richards
Conceptions of the Self in Wittgenstein,
Hume, and Buddhism: An Analysis and Comparison

Tom Rockmore
Marxian Man

Tu, Wei-ming
On the Mencian Perception of Moral Self-Development

David A. Dilworth & Hugh J. Silverman
A Cross-Cultural Approach to the De-Ontological Self Paradigm

Susan Leigh Anderson
The Substantive Center Theory Versus the Bundle Theory

Mark B. Woodhouse
Consciousness and Brahman-Atman

David & Marjorie Haight
The Country of Consciousness

P.T. Raju
Self and Body: How Known and Differentiated

Advisory Editor: Richard Rorty

Maurice Mandelbaum
A Note on Thomas S. Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Alisdair MacIntyre
Epistemological Crises, Dramatic Narrative
and the Philosophy of Science

Keith Lehrer
Social Information

Dudley Shapere
What Can the Theory of Knowledge Learn
From the History of Knowledge?

Larry Briskman
Historicist Relativism and Bootstrap Rationality

Harold I. Brown
For A Modest Historicism

Robert Hollinger
Two Kinds of Fictionalism

Jack W. Meiland
Concepts of Relative Truth

Advisory Editor: Ruth Barcan Marcus

Barbara H. Partee
Possible Worlds Semantics and Linguistic Theory

Robert Stalnaker
Complex Predicates

Richmond H. Thompson
Indirect Discourse Is Not Quotational

Robert K. Meyer & Richard Routely
Extensional Reduction?I

Jaakko Hintikka
The Ross Paradox As Evidence for
the Reality of Semantical Games

Jerrold J. Katz
The Advantage of Semantic Theory Over
Predicate Calculus in the Representation
of Logical Form in Natural Language

Esa Saarinen
Game-Theoretical Semantics

Neil Tennant
Recursive Semantics for Knowledge and Belief

Advisory Editor: Maurice Mandelbaum

James Collins
Functions of Kant’s Philosophy of Religion

Paul Ricoeur
Schleiermacher’s Hermeneutics

Edward Black
Religion and Philosophy in Hegel’s Philosophy of Religion

Wayne P. Pomerleau
The Accession and Dismissal of an Upstart Handmaid

Robert Merrihew Adams
Kierkegaard’s Arguments Against Objective Reasoning in Religion

Michael Ruse
William Whewell and the Argument from Design

John Macquarrie
Philosophy and Religion in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries:
Continuities and Discontinuities

Merold Westphal
Nietzsche and the Phenomenological Ideal

Advisory Editor: Eugene Freeman

Samuel Gorovitz
Bioethics and Social Responsibility

H. Tristram Englehardt, Jr.
Ontology and Ontogeny

Arthur J. Dyck
An Ethical Analysis of Population Policy Alternatives

K. Danner Clouser
Biomedical Ethics: Some Reflections and Exhortations

Tom L. Beauchamp
Paternalism and Biobehavioral Control

H.V. Wyatt
Vaccines and Social Responsibility: Here Are the
Answers. What Are the Questions?

Mario Bunge
Towards a Technoethics

Kathryn Pyne Parsons & David Ozar
A Sample Course in Morality and Medicine

Ernlé W.D. Young
An Approach to the Teaching of Biomedical Ethics

Peter McL. Black, M.D.
Three Definitions of Death

[Table of Contents Not Available]

Advisory Editor: Wilfrid Sellars

P.T. Geach
Two Kinds of Intentionality?

Richard Rorty
Realism and Reference

R.M. Martin
Some Reminders Concerning Truth, Satisfaction, and Reference

James W. Cornman
Reference and Ontology: Inscrutable But Not Relative

Milton Fisk
Idealism, Truth, and Practice

David-Hillel Ruben
Epistemological Empiricism: The Duality of
Beliefs and Experiences Reconsidered

Michael Devitt
Semantics and the Ambiguity of Proper Names

William G. Lycan
Reality and Semantic Representation

Kai Nielsen
Rationality and Universality

[No Table of Contents Available]

Advisory Editor: Dagfinn Føllesdal

J.N. Findlay
Husserl’s Analysis of the Inner Time-Consciousness

Rudolf Boehm
Bewusstsein als Gegenwart des Vergangenen

John B. Brough
Husserl on Memory

Guido Küng
The Phenomenological Reduction as Epoche and as Explication

David Hemmendinger
Husserl’s Concepts of Evidence and Science

Richard H. Holmes
Is Transcendental Phenomenology Committed to Idealism?

Ronald McIntyre & David Woodruff Smith
Husserl’s Identification of Meaning and Noema

Jeffner Allen
Husserl Bibliography of English Translations

Keith R. David
Historical Note: The Paul Carus Collection

Advisory Editor: William K. Frankena

R.S. Peters
Moral Development and Moral Learning

R.M. Hare
Platonism in Moral Education: Two Varieties

Harald Ofstad
Education versus Growth in Moral Development

Kurt Baier
Moral Development

Marcus G. Singer
The Teaching of Introductory Ethics

Michael S. Pritchard
Responsibility, Understanding, and Psychopathology

Robert W. Burch
Are There Moral Experts?

Hardy E. Jones
The Rationale of Moral Education

Neil M. Lorber
Conforming versus Nonconformity to Social Ethics:
The Challenge to Educators

J. Theodore Klein
Cultural Pluralism and Moral Education

Advisory Editor: J.B. Schneewind

Brand Blanshard
Sidgwick the Man

J.B. Schneewind
Sidgwick and the Cambridge Moralists

D.D. Raphael
Sidgwick on Intuitionism

Marcus G. Singer
The Many Methods of Sidgwick’s Ethics

William K. Frankena
Sidgwick and the Dualism of Practical Reason

Gertrude Ezorsky
Unconscious Utilitarianism

Stephen L. Darwall
Pleasure as Ultimate Good in Sidgwick’s Ethics

Peter Singer
Sidgwick and Reflective Equilibrium

Advisory Editor: Monroe C. Beardsley

Joseph Margolis
Art as Language

F.E. Sparshott
Goodman on Expression

Alan Tormey
Indeterminacy and Identity in Art

Søren Kjørup
George Inness and the Battle at Hastings, or
Doing Things with Pictures

Kendall L. Walton
Are Representations Symbols?

John G. Bennett
Depiction and Convention

David Carrier
A Reading of Goodman on Representation

Stephanie Ross

Nelson Goodman
On Some Questions Concerning Quotation

V.A. Howard
On Musical Quotation

Howard Gardner
A Psychological Investigation of Nelson Goodman’s
Theory of Symbols

Marx W. Wartofsky
Art, Action and Ambiguity

Nelson Goodman
On Reconceiving Cognition

Advisory Editor: Joseph Owens

Anton C. Pegis
Between immortality and Death: Some Further
Reflections on the Summa Contra Gentiles

Joseph Owens
Aquinas and the Five Ways

Lubor Velecky
‘The Five Ways’?Proofs of God’s Existence?

Vernon J. Bourke
Is Thomas Aquinas a Natural Law Ethicist?

J. Donceel
Transcendental Thomism

James F. Ross
Justice Is Reasonableness: Aquinas on
Human Law and Morality

Jacob I. Dienstag
St. Thomas Aquinas in Maimonidian Scholarship

Charles J. O’Neil
Is Prudence Love?

R.E.A. Shanab
Ghazali and Aquinas on Causation

Ronald Duska
Aquinas’s Definition of Good: Ethical-Theoretical
Notes on D Veritate, Q. 21

Ralph W. Clark
Saint Thomas Aquinas’s Theory of Universals

Advisory Editor: Lewis White Beck

James Turner Johnson
Toward Reconstructing the Jus Ad Bellum

Robert L. Holmes
On Pacifism

Iredell Jenkins
The Conditions of Peace

Jeffrie G. Murphy
The Killing of the Innocent

William Earle
In Defense of War

Edward Black
Hegel on War

LeRoy Walters
The Just War and the Crusade:
Antitheses or Analogies?

Cheryl Noble
Political Realism, International Morality,
and Just War

Advisory Editor: R.M. Martin

R.M. Martin
On the Logical Structure of the Ontological Argument

Henry Hiz
On the Rules of Consequence for a Natural Language

George Lakoff
Notes on What It Would Take to Understand
How One Adverb Works

Edward L. Keenan
Presupposition in Natural Logic

Asa Kasher
Logical Forms in Context:
Presuppositions and Other Preconditions

James D. McCawley
Fodor on Where the Action Is

G. Benjamin Oliver
Underlying Realities of Language

Thomas M. Olshewsky
Deep Structure: Essential, Transcendental
or Pragmatic?

Paul T. Sagal
Implicit Definition

Advisory Editor: John E. Smith

T.A. Goudge
Pragmatism’s Contribution to an
Evolutionary View of Mind

Armand A. Maurer
A Thomist Looks at William James’s
Notion of Truth

Eugene Freeman
Objectivity As “Intersubjective Agreement”

Asher Moore
The Promised Land

Georges Dicker
Knowing and Coming-To-Know in
John Dewey’s Theory of Knowledge

Garry M. Brodsky
Peirce on Truth, Reality, and Inquiry

C.F. Delaney
Peirce’s Critique of Foundationalism

Sandra B. Rosenthal
Pragmatism and the Methodology of Metaphysics

William D. Stine
Dewey’s Theory of Knowledge

[No Table of Contents Available]

Advisory Editor: Mary Mothersill

A.I. Melden
The Play of Rights

R.B. Brandt
The Morality of Abortion

Jan Narveson
Aesthetics, Charity, Utility, and
Distributive Justice

William Earle
Some Notes on the Radical

Cornelius L. Golightly
Ethics and Moral Activism

John McMurtry
Monogamy: A Critique

David-Hillel Ruben
Searle on Institutional Obligation

J. Brenton Stearns
Ecology and the Indefinite Unborn

[No Table of Contents Available]

[No Table of Contents Available]

Advisory Editor: None

Richard Wasserstrom
The Laws of War

Hugo Adam Bedau
Compensatory Justice and the
Black Manifesto

Irving Thalberg
Visceral Racism

Gerald Dworkin

M.P. Golding
Obligations to Future Generations

Robert E. McGinn
Prestige and the Logic of
Political Argument

Virginia Black
The Methodology of Confirming the
Effectiveness of Public Policy

Advisory Editor: None

G.H.R. Parkinson
Spinoza on the Power and Freedom of Man

Stuart Hampshire
Spinoza’s Theory of Human Freedom

Wallace I. Matson
Spinoza’s Theory of Mind

Douglas Odegard
The Body Identical with the Human Mind:
A Problem in Spinoza’s Philosophy

Robert McShea
Spinoza: Human Nature and History

Willis Doney
Spinoza on Philosophical Skepticism

Warren Kessler
A Note on Spinoza’s Concept of Attribute

Lee C. Rice
Spinoza on Individuation

Ruth Saw
The Task of Metaphysics for Spinoza

Errol E. Harris
Spinoza’s Theory of Human Immortality

Advisory Editor: None

Gerd Buchdahl
Inductivist versus deductivist Approaches in the
Philosophy of Science as Illustrated by
Some Controversies between Whewell and Mill

Larry Laudan
William Whewell on the Consilience of Inductions

Hans Aarsleff
Locke’s Reputation in Nineteenth-Century England

B.A. Brody
Reid and Hamilton on Perception

Robert M. Young
Darwin’s Metaphor: Does Nature Select?

Robert T. Hall
Autonomy and the Social Order:
The Moral Philosophy of F.D. Maurice

Mary Hesse
Whewell’s Consilience of Inductions and Predictions

Larry Laudan
Reply to Mary Hesse

Advisory Editor: None

Asher Moore

Henry E. Allison
Kant’s Transcendental Humanism

Charles Hartshorne
Can Man Transcend His Animality?

Edward S. Casey
Man, Self, and Truth

Albert Hofstadter
Philosophy Is the Confession that
Being is Communion

Lee B. Brown
World Interpretations and Lived Experience

William H. Bossart
Is Philosophy Transcendental?

John Sallis
On the Limitation of Transcendental Reflection,
or Is Intersubjectivity Transcendental?

Advisory Editor: None

Carl Cohen
The Justification of Democracy

Felix E. Oppenheim
Democracy: Characteristics Included and Excluded

Gordon A. Welty
Mill’s Principle of Government as a
Basis of Democracy

J. Roland Pennock
Democratic Political Theory?A Typological Discussion

N.M.L. Nathan
On the Justification of Democracy

James Ward Smith
Justice and Democracy

Iredell Jenkins
The Disappointment of the Democratic
Expectation Or Democracy as Pure Form

Advisory Editor: None

Carl Cohen
Defending Civil Disobedience

John Ladd
Morality and the Ideal of Rationality
in Formal Organizations

Hugo A. Bedau
Civil Disobedience and Personal
Responsibility for Injustice

Alan Gewirth
Civil Disobedience, Law, and Morality:
An Examination of Justice Fortas’ Doctrine

Mulford Q. Sibley
Conscience, Law, and the Obligation to Obey

David Wieck

Michael Stocker
Moral Duties, Institutions, and Natural Facts

Advisory Editor: None

Anton C. Pegis
Four Medieval Ways to God

Barry Miller
The Contingency Argument

Lewis S. Ford
Whitehead’s Categoreal Derivation of
Divine Existence

Bruce R. Reichenbach
Divine Necessity and the Cosmological Argument

Michael Tooley
Does the Cosmological Argument
Entail the Ontological Argument?

Frank B. Dilley
Descartes’ Cosmological Argument

William L. Rowe
Two Criticisms of the Cosmological Argument

Advisory Editor: None

Charles Hartshorne
Six Theistic Proofs

W. Norris Clarke, S.J.
A Curious Blindspot in the Anglo-American
Tradition of Anti-Theistic Argument

James F. Ross
On Proofs for the Existence of God

David & Marjorie Haight
An Ontological Argument for the Devil

J. Brenton Stearns
Anselm and the Two-Argument Hypothesis

Parviz Morewedge
Ibn Sina Avicenna and Malcolm and the
Ontological Argument

Loren E. Lomasky
Leibniz and the Moral Argument for God’s Existence

Leon Pearl
Hume’s Criticism of the Argument from Design

Mary-Barbara Zeldin
Principles of Reason, Degrees of Judgment, and
Kant’s Argument for the Existence of God

Craig Harrison
The Ontological Argument in Modal Logic

Advisory Editor: None

William K. Frankena
Prichard and the Ethics of Virtue,
Notes on a Footnote

Kurt Baier
Moral Value and Moral Worth

John A. Oesterle
Morally Good and Morally Right

F.E. Sparshott
Five Virtues in Plato and Aristotle

Joseph Fletcher
Virtue as a Predicate

Stanley B. Cunningham
Does “Does Moral Philosophy Rest Upon a
Mistake?” Make an Even Greater Mistake?

Hilail Gildin
Aristotle and the Moral Square of Opposition

Thomas C. Mayberry
God and Moral Authority

Michael Stocker
Morally Good Intentions

Laurence D. Houlgate
Virtue is Knowledge